Variable charging programmes are in place in many municipalities in Japan.
Yamakawa and Ueta (2002) analysed the sustainability and edeterminants of waste reduction through variable charging and found:
Waste reduction through variable charging has a sustainability of more than 10 years.
The main factors contributing to the reduction of combustible waste through variable charging are two-tier pricing and the prices of waste bags/stickers.
Mandatory waste paper collections and variable charging reinforce eachother to promote a reduction in combustible waste.
Resource Renewal Institute, Japan: Special Areas of Concern http://www.rri.org/envatlas/asia/japan/jp-conc.html, Yamakawa, H. and K. Ueta, 2003. Waste reduction through variable charging programs; its sustainability and contributing factors. J Mater Cycles Waste Manage (2002) 4:77-86.
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